There are eight types of dyes- Ultramarine Blue, Red Orche, Marble White, Carbon Black, Emerald Green, Tyrian Purple, Indian Yellow, & Copper blue

These pigments could be used in paintings.

It can also be used in dying clothing

and it is also used coloring walls in the mixing bench. 

They can be made in the Press level 2 & 1 or by meditating.

They look like lumps of colored dust, similar to crushed limestone. Crushed limestone is not a pigment however.