The Golden Chest are created only on the generation of a new world. They might be spawn them when using version 1.3 BlockHeads or future version.They are located on a bedrock air gap and in Cave Troll lairs. They can be found in caves/mines,under sea or in small gaps of sand. For more active use, bring to house or populated area and use as regular chest or store wealthier content inside. Edit
Golden chests function just as crafted chest,But they look yellow or golden. They can be put anywhere , carried , relocated and stacked.
In one occurrence, seven emeralds were found in one chest. Another time, 5 diamonds were found in a single chest.